Die Casting defects

Casting defects

  1. Definition of casting defects
  2. Reasons for defects in casting
  3. Dental materials: casting defects

Definition of casting defects

  • The die casting defect is defined as the imperfections or flow that exists on the surface or subsurface of a solidified casting.
  • Casting deformities are generally not mishaps they happen on the grounds that some progression in the assembling cycle doesn’t get appropriately controlled and someplace turns out badly.
  • Close control and standardization of all aspects of manufacturing techniques offer the best defense against the occurrence of defects in casting.

Reasons for defects in castings

  • Defects caused by patterns and molding box equipment.
  • Defect due to improper molding and core making materials.
  • Defect due to improper sand mixing and distribution.
  • Defects due to improper mold drying and core baking.
  • Imperfections in throwing can be ordered under 4 headings
  • Distortion;
  • Surface roughness and irregularities;
  • Porosity;
  • Incomplete or missing detail;


  • Marked distortion of the casting is probably related to a distortion of the wax pattern
  • Distortion increments as the thickness of the example diminish
  • Generally, this is not a serious problem, not a great deal can be done to control this phenomenon.


  • Surface unpleasantness is characterized as moderately finely separated surface blemishes whose stature, width, and heading build up the overwhelming surface example.
  • Usually due to the particle size of the investment.
  • Usually not avoidable but can be minimized by proper technique
  • Surface abnormalities: are confined blemishes, for example, knobs that are not normal for the whole surface region
  • Air bubble: small nodules on casting are caused by air bubbles that become attached to the pattern during or subsequent to the investing procedure.

The nodule can be prevented by:

  • Mechanical mixer with vibration
  • A wetting agent

Water film

Wax is repellent to water, occasionally. This kind of surface abnormality shows up as moment edges or veins superficially.


  • •The example is marginally moved, jolted or vibrated subsequent to contributing or
  • If the artistic creation method doesn’t bring about a cozy contact of the venture with the example.
  • Too high an L/P ration


  • A wetting operator is of help in the counteractive action of such anomalies.
  • Rapid heating rates: may result in fines or spines on the casting due to cracking of investment.


Incomplete wax elimination residual burnout gases may interact with metal and cause porosities or tenacious residue on the casting.

Prolonged heating:

The disintegration of investment roughness

Disintegration product may cause

The temperature of the alloy: may damage investment walls roughness.

Casting pressure: roughness

Check the weight of 0.10 to 0.14 MPa in pneumatic stress throwing machines or three to four turns of the spring in a normal sort of divergent throwing machine is sufficient

Foreign bodies: irregularities

Pattern position: multiple patterns should not be placed too close together


Localized shrinkage porosity

  • Due to incomplete feeding of the molten metal.
  • Due to premature termination of the flow of the metal.
  • Generally, it occurs near the sprue casting junction.
  • If sprue freezes before feeding are complete the porosity develops in the last portion of casting that solidifies.